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Travis Kalanick Could Come Back to Uber, Like Apple’s Steve Jobs

Travis Kalanick Could Come Back to Uber, Like Apple’s Steve Jobs
Money Sharma / AFP / Getty
by Chriss W. Street22 Jun 2017Newport Beach, CA0 22 Jun, 2017
21 Jun, 2017

Uber’s CEO Travis Kalanick was dumped after a 47-point report by former Obama Attorney General Eric Holder found the company to be a management disaster, but he could make a triumphant return, like Apple’s once-fired CEO Steve Jobs.
Breitbart News reported that the investigation by Eric Holder’s Law Firm, Covington & Burling LLP, was the Death Star that caused Uber’s Chief Executive Office, Chief Operating Officer, Chief Financial Officer, Chief Business Officer, Chief Marketing Officer, Head of Engineering and General Counsel to leave involuntarily.

According to Recode, Holder investigated 215 Uber incidents, which led to 20 terminations, 31 employees in training or counseling, 7 written warnings, 100 cases with no action taken, and 57 cases still open.
As Kalanick was resigning in disgrace on June 20, Eric Holder was announcing that he plans to lead the legal resistance to Donald Trump’s agenda, and is exploring a run against the President in 2020. Holder told Yahoo News: “There’s a justified perception that I’m close to President Obama. So, I want to use whatever skills I have, whatever notoriety I have, to be effective in opposing things that are, at the end of the day, just bad for the country.”

Uber’s investors claim that they wanted a mass culture change to protect the company’s $62.5 billion valuation. Audra Diers-Lawson, a professor of public relations strategy at Leeds Beckett University, told the liberal Atlantic that Uber needed fundamental change. She stated that Uber’s CEO represented “a reputational cancer that could have been cut away — but that the cancer has infected the rest of the body.”
Travis Kalanick was runner-up to Germany’s Chancellor Angela Merkel as Time Magazine’s Person of the Year in 2015. Time was impressed by Kalanick’s business zeal, but expressed concern with violent protests by taxi drivers against Uber’s expansion. The Brookings Institute featured a column entitled “Is Uber a threat to democracy?”. The liberal publication demanded new social and regulatory policies as part of a new social contract.
Harvard Business School held a one-day forum featuring top corporate executives to analyze “Uber’s Keys to Success.” The consensus was that CEO Travis Kalanick’s willingness to violate corporate norms and flaunt laws was the key for Uber’s access to $8.81 billion in 14 rounds of venture capital to fund its rise to international dominance.

The first cultural change by Uber’s 14-member management committee, following Kalanick’s resignation, is that Uber will be lending its cash-free business model for the first time by implementing a driver tipping option in a cultural effort to improve relations with drivers and avoid sexual harassment complaints, according to the Verge. The committee also cut the amount of time from 5 to 2 minutes that a user may cancel an Uber pick-up before being charged a $5 penalty.
Although the cultural tweaks sound modest, they fundamentally change the business relationship Kalanick pioneered between Uber and its users. The company is now encouraging drivers to compete to service the best-tipping customers and communities. Kalanick strived to make the Uber experience consistent for all users.
Uber’s board’s highly visible dumping of Kalanick has similarities to Apple’s board’s dumping of Steve Jobs in 1985. According to Frank Rose’s book, West of Eden: The End of Innocence at Apple Computer, Apple’s board agreed that Jobs was a brilliant entrepreneur, but thought him too impulsive to run the business of a Fortune 500 firm.

His replacement, John Sculley, raised prices and licensed Apple’s technology. That initially saw higher profits. But the customer experience faded without Apple creating disruptive new products. On the verge of bankruptcy, Apple brought Jobs’s NeXT Computer 1997 and made him CEO again. Apple is now Forbes’ most valuable brand.
Travis Kalanick has an advantage over Steve Jobs, because he holds Uber super-voting shares that give him the right to appoint a new majority of Uber’s board, according to Wired. If Uber’s 14-member management committee fails to be entrepreneurial and Uber loses user competitiveness, Kalanick can come back as the company’s savior.

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Why It’s So Hard to Understand That the Violence Your Country Exports Is Terrorism

Attribution bias is a familiar theme in the literature of modern psychology.

“I do not understand the squeamishness about the use of gas. I am strongly in favor of using poison gas against uncivilized tribes. It would spread a lively terror.”—Winston Churchill, 1920, with regard to the uprising in Iraq.London.On 23 March 2017, Khalid Masood ploughed his car into pedestrians on Westminster Bridge in London, stabbed a police officer with a knife, and then was shot dead. He killed four people in the rampage, which injured an additional forty people and disturbed the equanimity of a major Western city. Masood, who was born in Dartford (Kent, United Kingdom), had run afoul of the law for many years—mainly because of acts of violence and possession of weapons. The gap between the act of Masood and a common criminal is narrow.Two months ago, the head of the Metropolitan Police said that “warning lights are flashing” over the rise of violent crime across England and Wales. The preferred weapon, said Sir Bernard Hogan-Howe, was the common knife. Violent crime had risen by twenty-two percent, with the last quarter of 2016 registering 30,838 crimes committed with knives. Masood’s crime could well have been read alongside this data, as a serious problem of an increase in violence with knives as the weapon of choice.Instead, the media and the British political class offered a sanctimonious lesson in civics. This was, said UK Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson, “an attack on our democracy, the heart of our democracy.” UK Prime Minister Theresa May told the House of Commons that despite this attack, “we will move forward together, never giving in to terror. And never allowing the voices of hate and evil to drive us apart.” One newspaper suggested that Boris Johnson’s statement was “Churchillian.”ISIS, which has been under serious threat in Iraq and Syria, has called upon people around the world to conduct acts of criminal violence in its name. There is no evidence yet that Masood acted on the instructions of ISIS or that he was following the ISIS edict to attack people in public areas in the West. What is known is that right after the attack, ISIS took credit for it, calling Masood its “soldier.” ISIS social media celebrated the attack. There is a form of delirium at work here—a group weakened now seeks to glorify itself by a pathetic attack by a man with a criminal record, using an old car and a knife.Attribution bias is a familiar theme in the literature of modern psychology. It refers to the problem that occurs when people evaluate the actions of themselves or others based not on the facts but on attributions transferred from inherent biases. Fritz Heider, who first developed this theory in The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations (1958), suggested that attributions are made mostly to preserve one’s self-concept—namely one’s sense of self. Rather than evaluate one’s own behavior in a bad situation, one tends to blame others and to disregard the constraints that others operate under. This is typically considered to be a “self-serving bias”—the winner of an election says, “I won because the people voted for me,” whereas the loser says, “I lost because of voter fraud.”Masood’s act has already been pinned on ISIS, and ISIS has already adopted him as one of its combatants. Both decisions are self-serving—the one to deny any native role for the production of Masood and the other to uplift a flagging insurgency. Masood’s own convulsions with racism, his own desire to seek glory above his miserable situation: these are not taken seriously. “Home-grown” terrorists have ‘home-grown’ problems. But the term ‘terrorist’ allows the “home-grown” person to be exported—as it were—to other countries, to defer blame to them—to ISIS, in this case.Al-MansouraThree thousand miles southeast of London sits the town of al-Mansoura, near the city of Raqqa (Syria). Aerial bombardment by the United States in the area around Raqqa had pushed about fifty families to take shelter in the al-Badia school in the town. The US bombings had come to soften up ISIS positions in the towns around Raqqa as hundreds of US forces take their positions in its periphery. The US forces—and their allies, the Syrian Democratic Forces—have sought to seize a major dam on the Euphrates River at the town of Tabqah. This dam is essential to the water supply for Raqqa. The battle over Tabqah, one of the last remaining conduits into and out of Raqqa, will be essential before the US and its allies turns its firepower against ISIS’s “capital.”On 22 March 2017, hours before Khalid Masood conducted his terror attack in London, US aircraft bombed the school. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, based in London, says that thirty-three civilians died in this bombing run. Hamoud Almousa of Raqqa is Being Slaughtered Silently says that the number might be as high as 101 civilians. The day before, on 21 March, US aircraft bombed the town of Tabqah, hitting the Maysaloon school, a field hospital and homes on al-Synaa street—killing twenty civilians. A week before, US aircraft bombed the town of al-Jineh (near Aleppo), hitting a mosque and killing forty-six civilians. Col. John Thomas of the US Central Command said that the US aircraft did not hit a mosque. “We are going to look into any allegations of civilian casualties in relation to this strike,” he said. This statement always suggests that the Central Command knows that it hit civilians, but does not want to make a direct statement one way or another.AirWars, a non-profit group that maintains a record of casualties from aerial bombardment, says that in March alone there have been over a thousand civilian non-combatant deaths in Iraq and Syria as a result of what it calls “Coalition actions”—with the US aircraft inflicting the bulk of the casualties. This considerable spike has led AirWars to suspend its investigation of Russian-inflicted casualties (fifty in March) and to divert its staff to look at those inflicted by the Coalition aircraft alone.The Western media focused on the actions of Khalid Masood and remained silent on these deaths. Brief notes of this or that massacre appeared, but without the focus and intensity of the kind of coverage given to the attack by Masood. No front page story with a large picture, no “Breaking News” coverage on television with correspondents insisting that spokesperson for US Central Command give them more than pabulum. It is as if we live in two alternative universes—one, where terror confounds the population with moral indignation and two, where large deaths from jet fighters are treated as the necessary side-effects of war. One is terrorism; the other is an accident.It does not feel accidental to the people of al-Mansoura or al-Jineh.BinariesI have spent decades thinking about the asymmetry of reactions to these sorts of incidents in places such as Iraq and Afghanistan. I have written about them, indignation as the mood of these essays. But this is spitting into the wind. It is futile on Facebook, for instance, to make the suggestion that the 2016 Karrada bombings in Baghdad (Iraq), which killed over 300 people, should have driven people to turn their profile pictures into Iraqi flags (as the world had done after the 2015 Paris attacks, when 137 people were killed). “Je Suis Charlie” is easy to write, but not #AmiAvijit. Eyes roll when these gestures are urged, whether through bewilderment at their meaning or exhaustion at their sanctimoniousness. After all, the eye-roll suggests, how could one compare a satirical French magazine with obscure Bangladeshi bloggers who have been hacked to death? It takes an immense act of will to push editors to run stories on tragedies that seem distant even from the places where they occur. All eyes focus on the latest attack in Molenbeek, but few turn with the same intensity to look at the tragedies in Beirut or in Cairo.Over the years I have settled on some binaries that operate to blind thinking about violence in the world. Our days have become hallucinations, with violence always at the edge of consciousness. But violence is understood through these binaries in ways that befuddle those who believe in a universal humanity, those who believe—in concrete terms—that people in Kabul deserve empathy and sympathy as much as people in Berlin. In fact, the scale of the violence in Kabul is so much greater than in Berlin that you would imagine greater sympathy for those in far more distress. But actually the logic of these binaries moves consciousness in the opposite direction.Eastern Malevolence / Western BenevolenceThere is standard belief amongst reporters—for example—that Western actions are motivated by the highest values and are therefore benevolent. The loftiest values of our time—democracy and human rights—are sequestered inside the concept of the West. The East—bedraggled—is treated as a place without these values. It is bereft, a bad student. There is what Aimé Césaire calls “shy racism,” for it suggests that Easterners cannot be given the benefit of doubt when they act, or that Westerners could not also be malevolent in their objectives. The way this logic runs it is the Eastern bombing of Syria’s Aleppo, conducted by the Oriental despot Bashar al-Asad, that is inhumane, while it is the Western bombing of Iraq’s Mosul (250 to 370 civilians killed in the first week of March) that is humane. It would pierce the armor of Western self-regard to admit that its armed forces could—without sentiment of care—bomb mosques and schoolhouses.What about Hitler? Is he not the epitome of Western malevolence? Hitler is the madman, much as white terrorists in the West are madmen. They do not define the society or the culture. No one asks after their attacks for Christianity to answer for their crimes or for Western Civilization to stand condemned. They are not compared to Hitler. The modern analogues of Hitler are always to be found in the East—Saddam, Bashar, Kim Jong-un—but not in the West.It took some guts for the Indian politician Shashi Tharoor to remark that “Churchill was no better than Hitler” —a statement that has led to the routine objections from the British political class. US President Donald Trump insisted on returning his bust to the Oval Office, where he showed it with great aplomb to the UK Prime Minister Theresa May (she gave him a copy of a Churchill speech during her visit). It does not bother either Trump or May that Churchill was a racist, who believed that the “Aryan stock is bound to triumph.” Cliches are mobilized to defend him: he was a man of his time, when such ideas were commonplace. But such ideas were being vigorously challenged from the colonies and from within Britain. Hitler’s Endlösung was not of a different quality from Churchill’s Bengal Famine of 1943. Tharoor’s comparison of Churchill to Hitler will not stick. It will eventually be swept away. Far easier to see Hitler in Bashar al-Assad or in Kim Jong-un than in Churchill or George W. Bush. Hitler was Europe’s aberration, not—as Césaire pointed out—the logical culmination of colonial brutality.State Legality / Non-State IllegalityStates do not normally act outside the confines of international law. If they do, then it is in error. Or there are some states that are not proper states, but “rogue states” that do not behave according to the principles of civilization. Normal states, not rogue states, the logic of shy racism goes, never intentionally violate the laws of war and behave in a barbaric way. Their acts of murder are always unintentional because it would be too costly for them to intentionally murder civilians.When the United Nations Human Rights Council wanted to investigate NATO’s 2011 bombing of Libya, based on UN Security Council resolution 1973, its Brussels headquarters stalled. NATO’s legal adviser, Peter Olson, wrote to the United Nations saying that NATO deserved immunity. “We would be concerned if NATO incidents were included in the commission’s report as on par with those which the commission may ultimately conclude did violate law or constitute crimes,” Olson wrote. What NATO would like, he concluded, was for the UN commission to “clearly state that NATO did not deliberately target civilians and did not commit war crimes in Libya.” In other words, without any investigation, the UN Human Rights Council should give NATO a certificate of high moral character.If civilians are killed, then it is either entirely accidental or it is because the enemy has used them as human shields. Strange illogical statements emerge from the power centers of the West to befuddle criticism. US President Obama’s drone strike policy allowed his operators to strike at crowds of people who looked like enemies (the “signature strike”). If, later, the intelligence services determined that some of them were not indeed enemies then those civilians would be ‘posthumously exonerated’. But they would—of course—be dead, murdered by a state actor that is not seen to be rogue and that sees itself as abiding by international law.Rogue states and rogue non-state actors do not abide by the protocols of the laws of war, and therefore they are the only ones who violate them intentionally. The violence of the rogue state and the rogue non-state actor is always worse than that of those who are deemed to be legitimate states and legitimate non-state actors. The nuclear weapons of India, Israel and Pakistan are acceptable, but Iran’s nuclear energy program is a grave threat to humanity. A ‘knife attack’ by a Palestinian child is horrendous and it is taken to define not only the Palestinian liberation movement, but Palestinian culture in general. The bombing of four young Palestinian boys on a Gaza beach is accidental and not definitive of either Israeli state action or of Israeli culture. This asymmetry of evaluation is fundamental to the ruling ideas of our time.Violence to Heal / Violence to HurtWhen the US military conducted its massive bombing run against Iraq in March 2003 under the name “Shock and Awe,” it was considered to be in the service of human rights and security. But the language used by its architects was genocidal. Harlan K. Uliman, who developed the theory of “Shock and Awe,” said in 2003, “You take the city down. You get rid of their power, water. In two, three, four, five days, they are physically, emotionally and psychologically exhausted.” A Pentagon official said of the actual bombing runs, “There will not be a safe place in Baghdad. The sheer size of this has never been seen before, never been contemplated before.” Hundreds of cruise missiles rained on Baghdad. Eventually, after a decade of war and occupation, the violence of the war would claim at least a million Iraqi lives.But yet, the language to define the war is muted. UN Secretary General Kofi Annan said of the war that “from the [UN] charter point of view, it was illegal.” This should mean that US President George W. Bush and his coterie are war criminals. But his successor, US President Barack Obama refused to open an investigation and the world followed suit. Bush’s language about bringing democracy and freedom to Iraq became the anthem. If a million people died, so be it. It was all to heal Iraq, to free Iraq.The violence of the Iraqi insurgency, on the other hand, was immediately considered to be violence intended to hurt, to create problems not only for the United States, but for Iraq itself. The violence of the West is prophylactic, while the violence of the East is destructive.Precious Life / Disposable LifeWhen news broke of the failed US raid on the village of al-Jineh (Yemen), the Western media concentrated on the death of Ryan Owens who was a Seal Team 6 member. There was a great deal of discussion on his death and little mention of the civilians who were killed by Owens’ comrades in that raid. If they were mentioned it was as a number: twenty-eight or thirty. There were no names in the stories, no way to make these people into human beings. Nothing about Mohammad Khaled Orabi (age 14), Hasan Omar Orabi (age 10), Ahmad Nouri Issa (age 23), Mustapha Nashat Said al-Sheikh (age 23), Ali Mustapha (age 17), Abd al Rahman Hasim (age 17), and not even Nawar al-Awlaki (age 8) whose father and brother had been killed in earlier raids. No mention of the names of the forty-two Somali refugees gunned down by a Saudi helicopter gunship, a weapons system provided by the United States. To offer these names would be to give these people humanity.When twenty thousand or more people died because an US-owned factory exploded in Bhopal, Michael Utidjian, medical director of American Cyanamid said in 1984, it is sad but needs to be seen in context. What is that context? Indians do not have the “North American philosophy of the importance of human life.” They do not mind when people die, it seems. They have a different standard of humanity. Their lives are disposable. They are not precious. Thirty-three dead here, forty-two dead there. Sad yes, but not tragic. Tragedy is only possible if one has the “North American philosophy of the importance of human life.”Legible Narrative / Illegible NarrativeIt would be an illogical narrative to suggest that Western generals want to raze cities. That is not their motivation. When the US flattened Fallujah (Iraq) in 2004, under the command of then Major General James Mattis of the 1st Marine Division, this was not the intent. That the use of Depleted Uranium led to cancer rates fourteen times higher than in Hiroshima (Japan) after the atom bomb was dropped there was incidental, not deliberative. It is impossible to imagine an American, for instance, being cruel in military strategy. On the other hand, it is easy to imagine a Syrian general, such as General Issam Zahreddine, being systematically vicious. It is not possible to see both as ferocious. It would be an illegible narrative if these two stories were set side by side. One is so obviously a better man (Mattis) than the other (Zahreddine). The character of the man of the West always surmounts the character of the man of the East.Violent ShockWho needs censorship when you have ideology? When anything outside the governing ideology tries to make an appearance it is dismissed as the rants of a conspiracy theorist or as “alt-facts.” Terrorism is terrorism and counter-terrorism is counter-terrorism. To break down the distinctions between them is a scandal against civilization itself. Of course al-Qa‘ida is bad and the US military is good! That is ipso facto, the essence of reality.None of this is the blame of individual reporters or editors or indeed of individual readers of the press reportage. It is not something restricted to the West, for these attitudes are shared widely around the world. This is not a consequence of the impact of CNN or of BBC, but of much earlier, much deeper attitudes with deep roots from colonial times. It was an old colonial view that the violence of the imperial armies must have some Enlightenment logic behind them, whereas those of the darker world came motivated by messianism, tribalism, millenarianism or other illogical views of older times.When in the 1950s the British violently crushed the aspirations of the Kenyans, sending thousands to concentration camps and killing—as the historian Caroline Elkins argues – a hundred thousand people, this was done for rational reasons. The Empire had to be protected. The uprising of the Mau Mau, which they were countering in Kenya, could not be allowed to succeed. Indeed, it could not succeed—the British suggested—because it was merely the eruption of older African instincts. Even the name of the group powerfully allowed the British to paint their insurgency in diabolical colors. The rebels called their outfit the Kenya Land and Freedom Army. The use of the words ‘land’ and ‘freedom’ suggested a link to the national liberation movements of that decolonization era. They also suggested a rational political platform, to distribute land to the colonized population in a free Kenya. The British insisted on calling them the Mau Mau—the name carrying for a British audience the full flavor of traditional Africa in its sound, the rhythm of a drum, the call from deep in the forest, the sly racism of the denial of the more traditional national liberation force. In the name Mau Mau appeared the forest and in it would dissolve the accusations of concentration camps and mass killings. It was not the British that did those killings, but the Mau Mau. Always the Mau Mau, never Lord Evelyn Baring who wrote that the British had to inflict “violent shock” against the Kenyans or else the British Empire would be defeated in Kenya.From Lord Baring’s Violent Shock to George W. Bush’s Shock and Awe: this cannot be terrorism. It is the business of rational states. Terrorism is what the others do. Always.This article originally appeared on Jadaliyya.
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The many reasons to love black tea: Benefits the heart, digestion, stress levels and more

Tea is actually the most consumed beverage worldwide after water so it’s quite likely you may be acquiring black tea benefits already on a regular basis. But is black tea good for you? Loaded with antioxidants called polyphenols that protect human cells from hazardous free radical damage, black tea definitely makes the list of one of my top anti-aging foods. Plus, black tea has been linked with improved mental alertness, lower ovarian cancer risk, and a possible decreased likelihood of developing Parkinson’s disease, diabetes and heart disease. (1)

While it’s typically consumed “black” and hot in the East, in the West it’s often consumed cold with lemon as iced tea or hot with milk and a sweetener like sugar or honey. Some varieties of black tea that may ring a bell include “English Breakfast” and “Irish Breakfast.” You may also be familiar with “Early Grey,” which is a black tea with bergamot essential oil, or chai tea, which combines a variety of spices with black tea. Any of these varieties come with black tea benefits so you can choose whichever one you prefer.

Today, black tea is by far the most popular of the tea varieties, and it’s commonly consumed daily in Western as well as South Asian countries like Sri Lanka and India. So we definitely know it has a lot of fans, but how healthy is black tea? Let’s take a look at exactly how black tea benefits your health whether you’re already a long-time devotee or you’re considering making it your new go-to caffeine of choice.

Is Black Tea Good for You? 7 Major Black Tea Benefits

What is black tea good for? Short answer: a lot. For starters, here are just some of the most impressive black tea health benefits:

1. Boosts Heart Health

There have been numerous studies revealing black tea’s positive impact on heart health. A study published in 2017 looked at the effects of tea consumption on the risk of ischaemic heart disease. The study looked at more than 350,000 men and women between the ages of 30 and 79 from 10 areas in China. When the researchers followed up about seven years later, they found that consumption of tea was associated with a reduced risk of ischaemic heart disease as well as a lower risk of major coronary events (like a heart attack). (2)

Another study compared black tea (without additives) drinkers to plain hot water drinkers for a period of 12 weeks. The black tea contained high amounts of flavan-3-ols, flavonols, theaflavins and gallic acid derivatives. The researchers found that daily consumption of nine grams of black tea resulted in “a highly significant decrease” of cardiovascular risk factors, including triglyceride levels and fasting serum glucose. There was also a significant decrease in the ratio of LDL to HDL cholesterol as well as an increase in HDL (“healthy”) cholesterol levels. Overall, the researchers conclude that drinking black tea “within a normal diet” leads to a decrease in major cardiovascular risk factors, and it also boosts antioxidant levels in humans. (3)

2. May Help Fight Cancer

Cancer fighter is also on the list of black tea benefits, as black tea consumption has been linked with the reduction of certain types of cancer.† For starters, a 2013 study published in the American Journal of Epidemiology investigated the effects of consuming flavonoid-rich black tea on prostate cancer risk in over 58,000 men in the Netherlands who provided detailed baseline information on several cancer risk factors. Black tea is considered a major source of health-promoting flavonoids like catechin, epicatechin, kaempferol and myricetin. The study revealed that increased flavonoid and black tea intake was linked to a lower risk of advanced stage prostate cancer. However, no associations were observed for overall and earlier stages of prostate cancer. (4)

Another promising study published in 2016 showed how the theaflavin-3 found in black tea had a very strong ability to stop the growth of cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells. A highly impressive finding since cisplatin is said to be “one of the most effective broad-spectrum anticancer drugs.” In addition, the theaflavin-3 was less toxic to the healthy ovarian cancer cells, which is awesome since many conventional anticancer drugs kill both cancerous and healthy cells. (5, 6)

3. Helps Reduce Risk of Diabetes

Diabetes is an ever-growing chronic health problem around the world. A study published in the journal Diabetologia wanted to look at tea (and coffee) consumption in relationship to the development of type 2 diabetes. The study involved 40,011 participants, and at the mean follow-up time of 10 years, the researchers found that 918 subjects had developed type 2 diabetes.

They also found that drinking both tea and coffee was linked with a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes. Specifically, consumption of at least three cups of tea or coffee per day reduced the risk of type 2 diabetes by about 42 percent. (7) This makes black tea beneficial as part of a diabetic diet plan.

4. Potentially Staves Off Strokes

A meta-analysis published in 2009 found that drinking black or green tea daily may prevent ischemic stroke. Specifically, the researchers found that regardless of what country the subjects came from, the people who drank the equivalent of three or more cups of tea each day had an overall 21 percent lower risk of stroke as compared to the subjects who drank less than one cup daily. (8)

5. Relieves an Upset Stomach

If you have an upset stomach and are experiencing diarrhea, then one nice strong cup of black tea may be just the answer. The tannins present in black tea have a helpful astringent effect on the intestinal lining, which can help calm inflammation in the intestines and get the diarrhea under control.

If you’re concerned you’re dehydrated, you can opt for decaffeinated black tea. A 2016 study showed that in 2- to 12-year-old patients with acute nonbacterial diarrhea, black tea tablets were not only an effective, but also a safe and inexpensive way to help manage diarrhea not caused by bacteria. (9)

6. Holds Antibacterial Ability

Black tea isn’t just a tasty beverage hot or cold — it also possesses potent antibacterial and antioxidant powers. Research has shown that black tea’s phenolic compounds as well as its tannins have the ability to inhibit some types of bacteria. In addition, the non-polymeric phenolic compounds are able to be absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract, making these bacteria-killing components of black tea orally active. (10)

Black tea consumed with honey has also been shown to specifically kill H. pylori bacteria, which can prevent all kinds of unwanted symptoms of a H. pylori, infection including ulcers. (11)

7. Lowers Stress Hormones

This is definitely one of my favorite black tea benefits. While coffee is known for getting some people a little too energetic, tea has a reputation for being more of a balanced caffeine source and even a relaxation beverage that can work as a stress reliever. Research has shown that black tea can actually help its drinkers better recover from the common daily stresses of life by bringing stress hormones, like cortisol, back down.

In one study, 75 healthy male tea drinkers with an average age of 33 all gave their usual caffeinated beverages and were split into two groups. For the following six weeks, one group consumed a fruit-flavored caffeinated black tea mixture containing the active ingredients found in a cup of tea while the other group drank a beverage that tasted the same and had the same level of caffeine yet did not contain any other active tea components. The subjects then underwent stress-inducing situation similar to what they would experience in normal life. Researchers kept track of their stress hormone and blood pressure levels as well as their heart rates and self-reported stress levels.

What did they find? The tasks were definitely stress-inducing according to all of the monitored health variables, yet 50 minutes after the stressor took place, the real black tea drinking group experienced a lowering of their cortisol levels that was noticeably lower in comparison to the fake black tea drinkers. The real black tea consumers also had their sense of relaxation rise after the stressful event compared to the fake group. And to add one more positive result of this study — black tea drinkers had lower blood platelet activation, which is involved in blood clot formation, which raises the risk of heart attack. (12)

What Else Is Black Tea Good For?

These are some doses of black tea by mouth that have been shown to be beneficial in scientific research for the following health concerns:

Headaches and mental alertness: up to 250 milligrams of caffeine per day to alleviate headaches and improve mental alertness
Heart attack and kidney stones: at least one cup of black tea each day to reduce heart attack and kidney stone risk
Atherosclerosis: one to four cups (125 to 500 milliliters) of brewed black tea each day to prevent hardening of the arteries
Parkinson’s disease: Men who consumed 421 to 2,716 milligrams of total caffeine (approximately five to 33 cups of black tea) daily seem to have the lowest risk of developing Parkinson’s disease. However, men who drink as little as 124 to 208 milligrams of caffeine (about one to three cups of black tea) daily also have a significantly lower chance of developing Parkinson’s disease. In women, one to four cups of black tea per day seems to be best.
Alzheimer’s disease: Recent research gleaned from studying 957 Chinese seniors 55 and older found that “regular consumption of tea lowers the risk of cognitive decline in the elderly by 50 percent, while APOE e4 gene carriers who are genetically at risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease may experience a reduction in cognitive impairment risk by as much as 86 percent.” (13)

I want to note that I certainly don’t recommend having 33 cups of black tea per day. We all handle caffeine differently, but in general it’s not recommended to have more than five cups (40 ounces) of black tea each day.

Black Tea vs. Green Tea vs. White Tea

Black, green and white tea all share the same tea source, which is the tea plant. The processing of tea results in the different colors, flavors and health benefits of tea. After picking, white tea is the least processed while black tea is the most processed. White tea is the closest you can get to just picking a tea leaf off the plant and incurs very little oxidation. Meanwhile, green tea gets dried and undergoes a pan-frying or steam-heating process depending on the variety. Black tea is made using leaves that have oxidized, which means they were purposely permitted to wilt and brown after picking.

The ORAC value (antioxidant content) of brewed black tea is 1,128 while green tea is slightly higher at 1,253. So green tea definitely wins when it comes to antioxidants, but it’s probably not by as much as you expected. (14)

Black, green and white tea all share common tea benefits thanks to their polyphenols, which science has shown to have antioxidant, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, detoxifying and immune-stimulating effects. (15)

Green tea is usually lower in caffeine than black tea while green tea is typically lower than white tea. Research has shown that green and white tea have similar levels of health-promoting catechins and polyphenols. (16)

Black Tea Plant Origin and Nutrition Facts

What is black tea? Black tea comes from the young leaves and leaf buds of the tea plant, Camellia sinensis. Black, white and green tea are all derived from this same tea plant. What sets them apart is how the leaves are treated after picking. Black tea is more oxidized than oolong, green and white teas, which also makes it more strong in flavor. It’s also the highest in caffeine of the varieties. The caffeine content of brewed black tea is considered moderate, typically averaging around 42 milligrams of caffeine per eight ounces, but it can be anywhere between 14 and 70 milligrams. (17, 18)

There are different grades of black. Whole leaf black tea is the highest grade and has a very small amount or even no changes to the tea leaf. These highest grade black teas are called “orange pekoe.” Pekoe tea is then further classified according to how many of the adjacent young leaves (two, one or none) were picked along with the leaf buds. The highest-quality pekoe tea only contains the hand-picked leaf buds. (19)

The lower grade black teas consist of broken leaves, fannings and dust. The black tea you find in tea bags is most often dust and fannings, which allow for a quicker brew but also a stronger, harsher taste. Whole leaf black teas tend to be less harsh and more floral.

All black tea is made from oxidized tea leaves or, in other words, tea leaves that were allowed to wilt and brown after they were picked. This oxidation causes the formation of theaflavins and thearubigins in black tea, which are compounds that are responsible for black tea’s color and taste, and also its possible health benefits.

One cup of brewed black tea contains about: (20)

2 calories
0.7 carbohydrates
0.5 milligrams manganese (26 percent DV)
11.9 micrograms folate (3 percent DV)

Black tea’s ORAC score of 1,128 is also quite impressive. ORAC stands for oxygen radical absorbance capacity, and this is a way of measuring the antioxidant content of food and beverages, which was developed by the National Institutes of Health. Black tea benefits are definitely directly related to this high antioxidant content.

How to Choose and Make the Best Black Tea

To optimize black tea benefits, opt for a black tea that is both organic and loose leaf. To avoid pesticides, it’s best to buy organic black. It’s also a good idea to buy loose black tea rather than black tea bags to avoid chemicals in the bags and to get the highest quality black tea.

The healthiest black tea preparation seems to involve high water brewing temperature and no added dairy fat. According to a study published in the International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, adding milk to black tea appears to lower its antioxidant potential, especially full fat cow’s milk. In addition, researchers found that brewing black tea at a near-boiling temperature (90°C or 194°F) results in the highest amount of antioxidants and hence health benefits. (21)

How to brew loose leaf black tea:

Boil water in tea kettle.
Using your teaware of choice, add one to two tablespoons of loose black tea to eight ounces or 12 ounces of just boiled 212 degrees F water (depending on how strong you like your tea as well as your mug size).
Allow three to five minutes of steeping time.
Serve in your favorite mug and enjoy!

Brewing can vary between different varieties of black tea so always read packaging directions carefully.

Black Tea Recipes

Black tea benefits can obviously come from a nice hot cup of tea. Black tea can also be consumed cold as iced tea. Another way to get black tea benefits in liquid form? You can use it to make a probiotic-rich kombucha.

Other tasty ways to get black tea benefits:

Black tea has many uses in the kitchen, but I also want to know what an awesome natural beauty aid it can be as well. Here are some non-food ways to make the most of black tea benefits:

Black Tea History and Interesting Facts

Black tea benefits are definitely not a new thing. For thousands of years, tea has been consumed has a medicinal beverage. In approximately the third century AD, experts say that tea started to be consumed daily, and this is when tea cultivation and processing started up. The very first published account of tea planting, processing and drinking methods is said to be from 350 AD. In the 1800s, tea began to spread further from China and Japan to Taiwan, Indonesia, Burma and India. (22)

In the mid 1800s, the British introduced tea culture into India and Ceylon (now Sri Lanka). Today, the top five producers of tea in the world are China (No. 1), India, Kenya, Sri Lanka and Turkey. (23) Being the second most popular beverage in the world after water, it’s no wonder that tea is mass-produced all across the globe.

When you steep black tea, you allow the flavor the tea to infuse the hot water. The more steep time, the more intense the flavor and vice versa. Scientists say that you shouldn’t steep your black tea for any less than two minutes, but apparently research has shown that a whopping 80 percent of tea drinkers don’t wait for even that small amount of time. Plus, 40 percent drink their tea immediately, which means they get a less flavorful, less antioxidant-rich, very weak brew. (24) To get the most black tea benefits, you definitely want to allow ample steeping time.

Potential Side Effects, Caution and Medication Interactions

Is tea bad for you ever? A caffeine overdose is an inherent risk that comes with consuming black tea, but it’s easy to avoid if you don’t overdo it. It’s recommended that you should not have more than five cups per day. More than that is considered unsafe. You can also become psychologically dependent on tea’s caffeine. (25) Black tea benefits are definitely best experienced in moderation for these reasons.

If you’re pregnant or breastfeeding, drinking no more than three cups of black tea (about 200 milligrams caffeine) is considered to likely be safe. However, consuming more than this amount is possibly unsafe and has been associated with an increased risk of miscarriage, sudden infant death syndrome and other negative effects, including symptoms of caffeine withdrawal in newborns and lower birth weight. (26)

If you have any ongoing health issues or currently take medication, check with your doctor before consuming black tea. There are a number of possible black tea medication interactions.

Black tea can decrease the body’s absorption of iron. If you don’t have an iron deficiency, this is likely not a concern. However, if you’re concerned, it’s recommended to drink black tea in between meals rather than with meals to decrease the unwanted interaction. Black tea may also react with supplements, including but not limited to bitter orange, cordyceps, calcium, magnesium, caffeine-containing supplements and herbs, danshen, creatine, echinacea, folic acid, melatonin, and red clover.

It’s possible to have a food allergy to black tea. Testing can determine if you have one. Discontinue consumption of black tea if you show any signs of a food allergy, especially if severe.

Final Thoughts on Black Tea Benefits

So far, black tea benefits proven by science are quite impressive, including boosting heart health, decreasing diabetes risk, fighting cancer and lowering stress, just to name a few. High-quality black tea in moderation can definitely be a healthy addition to your diet. It’s also a great option if you’re currently looking to cut back on your coffee consumption. By swapping out a cup of coffee for a cup of black tea, you can still get the boost of mental alertness but with less caffeine.

Everyone’s feelings and limits with caffeine are different so be mindful of that when drinking black tea. You can also experiment with all of the many delicious varieties of black tea to figure out which one best suits your taste buds. When you do have a cup of black tea, try to make it a relaxing and rejuvenating time for yourself because that makes the black tea benefits even greater.